Exit takes form in an immersive space that presented a 360° projection of six animated and thematic maps: Population Shifts: Cities; Remittances: Sending Money Home; Political Refugees and Forced Migration; Natural Catastrophes; Rising Seas, Sinking Cities; Speechless and Deforestation (created in collaboration with AlhóndigaBilbao and Unesco).
Using a wide array of sources ranging from international organizations to NGOs and research centers, Exit provides the rare opportunity to visually understand the complex relationships between the various factors underpinning contemporary human migrations. The work has been entirely updated, reflecting the alarming evolution of the data since it was first presented in 2008. In each of the six maps, the connection between humans and their environment has degraded considerably over the past seven years.
Population Shifts: Cities
There are now as many people living in urban areas as in rural areas. This first map shows this shift of population: each pixel of the map represents one thousand people, and the pixels are distributed equally between urban and rural areas. Cities are the key battlefield in the fight against climate change, emitting roughly 70% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions.
Sources : Gridded Population of the World, version 3 (GPWv3): Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University (› Website), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (› Website), The World Bank (› Website), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), 2004 (› Website), The world’s fastest growing cities and urban areas from 2006 to 2020: City Mayors, Statistics (› Website)
Remittances: Sending Money Home
Remittances from immigrants represent the first source of foreign investment in developing countries. The animation shows the five top remitting countries, represented by their flag, as well as the large number of countries receiving remittances. In 2014, migrants sent more than 389 billion euros to developing countries. In these countries, remittances exceed foreign aid by 3 to 1.
Sources : Global Migrant Origin Database (updated March 2007): The Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty (Migration DRC), University of Sussex (› Website), Bilateral migration matrix and Bilateral remittance estimates (using migrant stocks, destination country incomes, and source country incomes): data associated with World Bank Working Paper No. 102 "South- South Migration and Remittances." (› Website), Sending Money Home: Worldwide Remittance flows to developing countries: The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (› Website)
Political Refugees and Forced Migration
This map shows the continuous movement of people forced to migrate away from their homes because of war, persecution and violence. Refugees are displaced outside of their country, while internally displaced people (IDPs) are displaced within their own country. Green pixels represent refugees, while red pixels represent IDPs. There are currently about 19.5 million refugees worldwide, and more than 38 million IDPs. This is the highest number since the end of World War II.
Sources : United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Online Statistical Population Database (scraped September 2-5, 2008) (› Website), Digital Chart of the World Server, Penn State University Libraries (› Website)
This map shows the disproportionate toll paid by developing countries to natural disasters, in comparison to industrialised countries. An artificial line divides the world in two hemispheres, and stresses that the victims and damages are much more significant in the South than in the North, for a similar disaster. Since 2008, natural disasters displace on average 26 million people per year—that is one person every second.
Sources : EM-DAT, The Emergency Events Database: Centre for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) Université catholique de Louvain, École de Santé Publique (› Website), Dartmouth Flood Observatory, Active Archive of Large Floods (› Website), Project of Risk Evaluation, Vulnerability, Information and Early Warning (PREVIEW) (› Website), Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) (› Website), Global Resource Information Database (GRID) (› Website)
Rising Seas, Sinking Cities
The average sea-level rise is expected to be around one meter by the end of the century. This map shows the cities located in coastal regions that will be affected by this sea-level rise. The cities in question, however, are not equally vulnerable, because of different development levels and other factors. The animation highlights the cities that are most vulnerable, and are at risk of sinking.
Sources : Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMP): Settlement Points: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University (› Website), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (› Website)), The World Bank (› Website)), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), 2004 (› Website)), Gridded Population of the World, version 3 (GPWv3)—National Boundaries: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University (› Website)), Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change, A Regional Climate SCENario GENerator CO2 emissions: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (› Website)), The Elevation Query Web Service: USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (› Website)
Speechless and Deforestation
The destruction of tropical forests also represents the destruction of indigenous people’s livelihoods, cultures and languages. The map shows the ongoing process of tropical deforestation in three different regions: Xingu Park in Brazil, South-East Cameroon, and Jambi Province in Sumatra, Indonesia. In each of these regions, indigenous peoples are at risk, as well as their cultures and languages. More than half of the 6,700 languages that are spoken today are in danger of extinction by the end of the century.
Sources : The map Speechless and Deforestation has benefited from the scientific collaboration of Bruce Albert, Director of Research at the Institut de Recherche pour le développement, and François-Michel Le Tourneau, Director of Research at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique. UNESCO, Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 2009 (› Website), Human Footprint and Last of the Wild V2: Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) (› Website), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, 2002 (› Website), International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (› Website), The World Bank (› Website), Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), 2004 (› Website), NASA MODIS 32-day Composites, The Global Land Cover Facility: University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (› Website)